There are two cannabinoid receptors – CB1 which is largely responsible for neurological processes and CB2 being responsible for physiological processes. Our bodies produce their own cannabinoids—endocannabinoids—primarily anandamide, and 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol). A “phytocannabinoid” or plant-derived cannabinoid like CBD or THC can activate the same receptors in the body and have similar or stronger effects than our endocannabinoids. This is similar to how morphine derived from the poppy plant can reduce pain by activating the body’s endorphin receptors. Now that you have a foundational understanding of what our Endocannabinoid System is and its critical role in our health, it’s important to understand how CBD ties into all of this.
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CB1 are the most abundant receptors in the brain while CB2 are found outside of the nervous system such as in immune cells. The receptors act as a doorway for the cannabinoids to enter the cell.
- Since research has only discovered two cannabinoid receptors, there are potentially other receptors being affected by CBD.
- Since CBD often interacts with other receptors in the body, the effects may vary in each person and the exact functions CBD effects may vary from person to person.
- Endocannabinoid receptors are found throughout the body on the surface of cells in the brain, organs, tissues, and glands.
- The third way CBD affects the ECS is by mimicking endocannabinoids by binding to the receptors which sends signals to cells in the body to create a state of homeostasis.
- These receptors are embedded in cell membranes and produce varying reactions when stimulated by cannabinoids.
Development of cannabinoids from the cannabis plant as therapeutic agents has been hindered by their recreational abuse and addictive properties . Legalization of medical marijuana is a growing trend during the past few years. Medical marijuana is primarily used to treat glaucoma and to stimulate appetite and prevent weight loss in AIDS and cancer patients [1–4]. In several other countries, Sativex® has been approved to treat spasticity and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis patients and pain in patients with advanced cancer . It contains an equimolar combination of psychoactive Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and nonpsychoactive cannabidiol, which are phytocannabinoids .
Chronic cannabis use is associated with increased incidence of rhinitis, pharyngitis, asthma, bronchitis, and sexually transmitted diseases . Besides social behavior contributing to an increased rate of sexually transmitted diseases, depressed immune functions could enhance susceptibility of marijuana users to infections . Cannabis sativa, better known as marijuana, has been used in traditional medicine for millennia to treat various ailments [1–4].
Scientists have found that the chemical structure of phytocannabinoids are so similar to the ones that our body produces that our body naturally accepts these phytocannabinoids as if they were our own. The cannabis plant contains numerous cannabinoids and they all interact with our ECS differently. Among these is CBD and, along with THC, is the most researched of all cannabinoids.
Both endocannabinoids and cannabinoids from plants can bind to the CB1 and CB2 receptors. Neurological consequences of cannabinoid exposure can be attributed to cannabinoid receptors within the brain. Moreover, cannabinoids impact other biological systems besides the central nervous system. Numerous studies report that cannabinoids suppress in vitro functions of human and animal immune cells, and animals exposed to cannabinoids have decreased host resistance to various pathogens and tumors (reviewed in [10–12]).
The aim of this review is to describe and discuss data from human, animal, and in vitro studies that support the important role of the endocannabinoid system in female reproductive tissues and processes. In particular, we will discuss some of the mechanisms by which endocannabinoid signaling can affect ovarian function in both CBD oil physiological and pathophysiological states. The endocannabinoid system is a biological system composed of endocannabinoids that are neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors in brains and bodies of mammals. These cannabinoid receptors play a pivotal role in the physiological effects when cannabinoids interact with the body and mind and as a result, control the processes associated with mood, memory, and pain.
Talk To Your Doctor Before Trying Cbd
CBD does not directly interact with our cannabinoid receptors in the same way that our endocannabinoids do. In fact, CBD actually tells our bodies to create more of its own cannabinoids and ensures that these cannabinoids are not broken down too quickly by enzymes. Although initially identified in the early 90s by researchers looking into the effects of THC, the endocannabinoid system is a complex cell-signalling system that does NOT depend on cannabis use for its functions within the body. The ECS actually contains many cannabinoids of its own called endocannabinoids, whereas both CBD and THC are phytocannabinoids that occur naturally in the cannabis plant.